# Python tutorial : Part 5 : python math module

Python Math module:

Using Math module in python, we can access to different mathematical functions already defined by the C standard . “math” module functions cannot use with complex numbers. For complex numbers, another module known as “cmath” (link) is available.

To use this module , we need to include “import math” for that program. e.g. :

import math print math.pi

Following are the functions provided by math module :

ceil(x) ,return smallest integer value greater than or equal to x copysign(x,y) , returns x with the sign of y . e.g. copysign(1.0, -2.0) returns -1.0 fabs(x) : returns absolute value of x factorial(x) : returns x factorial .If x is not integral or negative, it throws an error. floor(x) : returns the largest integer value less than or equal to x fmod(x,y) : returns reminder when x is divided by y frexp(x) : Return the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair (m, e). m is a float and e is an integer such that x == m * 2**e fsum(iterable) : Return an accurate floating point sum of values in the iterable. isinf(x) : Checks if the float x is positive or negative infinity. isnan(x) : checks if the float x is NaN ( Not a number ) ldexp(x,i) : return x * (2**i). This is essentially the inverse of function frexp(). modf(x) : returns the factional and integer parts of x. trunc(x) : returns the truncated int value of x

Power and logerithmic functions :

exp(x) : returns e**x expm1(x) : returns e**x - 1 log(x[, base]) : returns the logarithm of x to the base ( default base is e ) log1p(x) : return the natural logarithm of 1+x (base e). log10(x) : return the base-10 logarithm of x pow(x,y) : return x raised to the power y sqrt(x) : return the square root of x

Trigonometric functions :

acos(x) : return the arc cosine of x in radians asin(x) : return the arc sine of x in radians atan(x) : return the arc tangent of x in radians atan2(y,x) : Returns atan(y / x) cos(x) : returns the cosine of x hypot(x, y) : Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y). sin(x) : return the sine of x radians tan(x) : return the tangent of x radians

Angular Conversion :

degrees(x) : Converts angle x from radians to degrees radians(x) : Converts angle x from degrees to radians

Hyperbolic functions:

acosh(x) : Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of x asinh(x) : Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of x atanh(x) : Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of x cosh(x) : Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x sinh(x) : Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x tanh(x) : Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x

Special Functions :

erf(x) : Returns the error function at x erfc(x) : Returns the complementary error function at x gamma(x) : Returns the Gamma function at x lgamma(x) : Returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x

Constants :

pi: Mathematical constant to available precision (3.14159...) e : mathematical constant e to available precision (2.71828...)

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